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1.5 stars 13 reviews

Bizpoint Inc

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273 Bank St
Ottawa, ON  K2P 1X5

(613) 233-2499

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Reviews [13]
1.5 star rating
GL February 17, 2009, (Edited February 12, 2010)
Worst company ever

After being mistreated by that company, I did some investigation. The reputation of this company online is disturbing. I found several links revealing information about BizPoint:

ottawa.bbb.org/WWWRoot/Report.aspx?si... (Already posted in another review below.)
groups.google.com/group/ott.general/b... (Here one of the employees of BizPoint insults people in a forum thread.)

It's also odd that some positive reviews, or comments calling others liars, were posted after several negative ones have been written. Another interesting point is the reviewer "moveottawa" also added a positive review about them on the following site:


(It is written by "raja m.," but clicking on the user's name reveals that person is working for or owns a company called Move Ottawa.)

At the link below, you can also find positive reviews just written recently about BizPoint by the same people who wrote positive reviews here, including Jason and Raja (a.k.a. "moveottawa").


Here's another one below. There was a bad review about BizPoint, but now there's a positive one too. However, once again, if you click on the "See all my reviews" link in the good review, you can see the user who wrote it also wrote a positive review about Move Ottawa. I'm starting to believe there's a strong complicity between those two businesses!


Maybe someone should call Ottawa's City Hall to have the licence of that business revoked!

They also have a "FedEx" sign in their window, but when I called FedEx two weeks ago, they could not find any information about that company.

Finally, their Web site is displaying specials expiring... on May 2008! Just another example of their total lack of professionalism and respect for their customers.

Edit (2009-03-25): Their office has been closed since weeks now and I heard BizPoint is now closed for good. All their equipment is still in their office and it looks like the personel just ran away. Plus it seems they are spamming this page using pages from Wikipedia.

Edit (2009-04-06): Their office has been closed since more than a month, despite once a sign that said they'll re-open at the end of February. Their signs, supplies, and equipment are still inside. It looks like the staff simply ran away, trying to escape their problems. It also looks like they hired people to spam this page by copying pages from Wikipedia.

1.5 star rating
chungpa Update February 10, 2009, (Edited April 29, 2009)

Rail transport
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"Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here. For other uses, see Railroad (disambiguation).

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Rail transport is the conveyance of passengers and goods by means of wheeled vehicles running along railways (railroads). Rail transport is part of the logistics chain, which facilitates international trade and economic growth.

Typical railway tracks consist of two parallel rails, normally made of steel, secured to crossbeams, termed sleepers (U.K., Commonwealth nations and Australia) or crossties or ties (U.S. and Canada). The sleepers maintain a constant distance between the two rails, a measurement known as the "gauge" of the track. To maintain the alignment of the track it is either laid on a bed of ballast or secured to a solid concrete foundation. The whole is referred to as permanent way (U.K. and Australia) or right-of-way (North America).

Railway rolling stock, which is fitted with metal wheels, moves with low frictional resistance when compared with road vehicles. Locomotives and powered cars normally rely on the point of contact of the wheel with the rail for traction and adhesion (the part of the transmitted axle load that makes the wheel "adhere" to the smooth rail). This is usually sufficient under normal conditions, but adhesion can be reduced or lost through the presence of unwanted material on the rail surface, such as moisture, grease, ice or dead leaves.[1] To counteract such reduction of adhesion, many locomotives have devices which blow fine sand on the rail ahead of the wheels.

Contents [hide]
1 General
1.1 Incidence
1.2 Terminology
2 History
2.1 Stone rails
2.2 Wooden rails
3 Iron plate rail
3.1 Edge rail
3.2 Wrought iron and steel
4 Motive power
4.1 Steam locomotives
4.2 Dieselisation
4.3 Electrification
4.4 Miscellaneous
5 Operations
5.1 Rolling stock
5.2 Signalling
5.3 Right of way
5.4 Safety and railway disasters
6 Trackage
6.1 Track components
6.2 Points (turnouts or switches)
6.3 Maintenance
7 Terminology
8 Rail transport by country
9 See also
10 Footnotes
11 References
12 Further reading

[edit] General

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (Victoria Terminus) in Mumbai (Bombay), India.[2]Rail transport is an energy-efficient [3] and capital-intensive means of mechanised land transport and is a component of logistics. Along with various engineered components, rails constitute a large part of the permanent way. They provide smooth and hard surfaces on which the wheels of the train can roll with a minimum of friction. As an example, a typical modern wagon can hold up to 113 tonnes of freight on two four-wheel bogies or trucks. The contact area between each wheel and the rail is tiny, a strip no more than a few millimetres wide, which minimizes friction. The track distributes the weight of the train evenly, allowing significantly greater loads per axle and wheel than in road transport, leading to less wear and tear on the permanent way. This can save energy compared with other forms of transportation, such as road transport, which depends on the friction between rubber tires and the road. Trains have a small frontal area in relation to the load they are carrying, which reduces air resistance and thus energy usage, although this does not reduce the effects of side winds.

[edit] Incidence

Railway tracks running through Stanhope railway station in North East England, UK
A railway ticket issued in the U.K.Due to these benefits, rail transport is a major form of passenger and freight transport in many countries. In Asia, many millions use trains as regular transport in India, China, South Korea and Japan. It is widespread in European countries. Freight rail transport is widespread and heavily used in North America, but intercity passenger rail transport on that continent is relatively scarce outside the Northeast Corridor, although a number of major U.S. and Canadian cities have heavily-used local rail-based passenger transport systems or light rail or commuter rail operations.[4]

Africa and South-America have some extensive networks such as in South Africa, Morocco-Algeria-Tunisia, Egypt, Brazil and Argentina; but some railroads on these continents are isolated lines connecting two places. Australia has a generally sparse network befitting its population density, but has some areas with significant networks, especially in the southeast. In addition to the previously existing east-west transcontinental line in Australia, a line from north to south was recently constructed. The highest railroad in the world is the line to Lhasa, Tibet, partly running over permafrost territory. In Western-Europe, the region with the highest railroad density in the world, most possible connections seem to have been made, but major projects continue to be realized, such as the Channel Tunnel between Britain and France, new dedicated high-speed lines, the Betuweroute for freight from the port of Rotterdam in Holland to Germany and the tunnel under Brussels. Western Europe nevertheless remains a technically and organisationally fragmented region with the Trans Europe Express being one of the few exceptions.

[edit] Terminology
The vehicles travelling on the rails, collectively known as rolling stock, are arranged in a linked series of vehicles called a train, which can include a locomotive if the vehicles are not individually powered. A locomotive (or "engine") is a powered vehicle used to haul a train of unpowered vehicles. In the U.S. individual unpowered vehicles are known generically as cars. These may be passenger-carrying or used for freight. For passenger-carrying vehicles the term carriage or coach is used, while a goods or freight-carrying vehicle is known as a freight car in the U.S. and a wagon or truck in the U.K. An individually-powered passenger vehicle is known as a railcar or a power car; when one or more as these are coupled to one or more unpowered trailer cars as an inseparable unit, this is called a railcar set or multiple unit. All rolling stock is fitted with standardized couplings (North America: couplers) to connect cars and locomotives together. In some countries, rolling stock is fitted with buffers to reduce the effect of hitting another car. Most rolling stock have brakes that can be operated remotely from the locomotive cab.

A station is the place where trains stop to load and unload, mostly referring to passengers. A railroad yard is an assembly of tracks for the purpose of storing rolling stock and assembling trains, or maintaining and repairing them, also called a shunt yard. Shunting (North America: switching) is arranging rolling stock in a yard, mostly performed by small locomotives called shunters (switchers or switching locomotives). Points or switches are the term used for changeable connections of two rails. The movement of trains is controlled by signals that may consist of lights or (movable) signs, manually or automatically operated. A tramway mostly refers to a passenger railway in the streets.

[edit] History
See also: History of rail transport, Timeline of railway history, and Rail profile

[edit] Stone rails

Trackwork including a point on the Haytor Granite TramwayThe earliest evidence of a railway is the 6-kilometre (3.7 mi) Diolkos wagonway, which transported boats across the Corinth isthmus in Greece during the 6th century BCE. Trucks pushed by slaves ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos ran for over 1300 years, until 900 AD.[5] The first horse-drawn wagonways also appeared in ancient Greece, with others on Malta and various parts of the Roman Empire, using cut-stone tracks. An example of stone track still exists on Dartmoor, England, where the Haytor Granite Tramway was built in 1820 using grooved granite blocks.

[edit] Wooden rails
Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages following the collapse of the Roman Empire. The earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a stained-glass window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau dating from around 1350.[6] By 1550, narrow gauge railways with wooden rails were common in mines in Europe.[7] The first railways in the U.K. (also known as wagonways) were constructed in the early 17th century, mainly for transporting coal from mines to canal wharfs where it could be transferred to a boat for onward shipment. The earliest recorded examples are the Wollaton Wagonway in Nottinghamshire and the Bourtreehill - Broomlands Wagonway in Irvine, Ayrshire. Other examples were in Broseley in Shropshire, where wooden rails and flanged wheels were utilised, as on a modern railway. The rails were prone to wear out under the pressure, and had to be replaced regularly.

The earliest recorded railway in America was an inclined wooden tramway built by John Montresor (1736-1799), a British military engineer, in 1764. Called "The Cradles" and "The Old Lewiston Incline," loaded carts were pulled up wooden rails by rope. It facilitated the movement of goods over the Niagara Escarpment in present-day Lewiston, New York.[8]

[edit] Iron plate rail
In 1768, the Coalbrookdale Iron Works laid cast iron plates on top of the wooden rails, providing a more durable load-bearing surface. These were later used by Benjamin Outram at his foundry in Ripley, Derbyshire, the first time standardised components were produced. It was these that led to the name "platelayer" for workers on the permanent way. The advantage was that a considerable variation in wheel spacing (gauge) could be accommodated. However, wheels would bind against the upright part of the plate, and mud and stones would accumulate. On the Little Eaton Gangway in 1799, where Outram used passing loops on the single track, moveable plates called "pointers" were provided, which became shortened to "points".[9]

[edit] Edge rail

Lengths of "fishbelly" rail on stone support blocksFrom the late 18th century, iron "edge rails" began to appear. The British civil engineer William Jessop designed smooth iron edge rails, which were used in conjunction with flanged iron wheels, introducing them on a route between Loughborough and Nanpantan, Leicestershire, as an adjunct to the Charnwood Forest Canal, in 1793-4.[10] In 1803, Jessop opened the Surrey Iron Railway in south London, arguably the world's first horse-drawn public railway.[11] Being of cast iron these rails were short, around three feet long, of a "fish-bellied" design. They had a foot at each end by means of which they were fastened to stone blocks in the ground.

[edit] Wrought iron and steel
Cast iron is a brittle material and the short lengths meant that they soon became uneven. However, developments in the process of hot rolling iron meant that longer length rails could be produced. In 1805, the first wrought iron rails were produced at Bedlington Ironworks near Durham. The first steel rails were produced by Robert Forester Mushet and laid at Derby station in 1857.[10] Modern railways still use steel rails, typically welded together to form lengths of continuous welded rail; these remove the additional wear and tear on rolling stock caused by the tiny differences in rail surface height at the joints between rails.

[edit] Motive power
A locomotive is the part of the train that provides the power to move the load, whether it is freight or passenger cars. The railroad engineer or driver of the train controls the locomotive or other power cars. The locomotive is usually, but not always, the first car. In contrast, some trains have several powered, payload-carrying cars, and these may be referred to as multiple units, motor coaches or power cars. Their development was possible thanks to the rise of the electric or diesel engine that are small enough to build in or under a coach. This form of traction is increasingly common for passenger trains, but rare for freight trains.

[edit] Steam locomotives

Blücher, an early railway locomotive built in 1814 by George StephensonThe first locomotive to haul a train of wagons on rails was designed by Cornish engineer Richard Trevithick and was demonstrated in 1804 on a plateway at Merthyr Tydfil, South Wales.[12] Although the locomotive successfully hauled the train, the rail design was not a success, partly because the locomotive's weight broke a number of the brittle cast-iron plates. Despite this setback, another area of South Wales pioneered rail operations when, in 1806, a horse-drawn railway was built between Swansea and Mumbles: the Swansea–Mumbles railway started carrying fare-paying passengers in 1807 – the first in the world to do so.[13]

In 1811 John Blenkinsop designed the first successful and practical railway locomotive.[14] He patented a system of moving coals by a rack railway worked by a steam locomotive (patent no. 3431), and a line was built connecting the Middleton Colliery to Leeds. The locomotive (The Salamanca) was built in 1812 by Matthew Murray of Fenton, Murray and Wood.[15] The Middleton Railway was the first railway to successfully use steam locomotives on a commercial basis. It was also the first railway in Great Britain to be built under an Act of Parliament. Blenkinsop's engine had double-acting cylinders and, unlike the Trevithick pattern, no flywheel. Due to previous experience with broken rails, the locomotive was made very light in weight and this brought concerns about insufficient adhesion; so instead of driving the wheels directly, the cylinders drove a cogwheel through spur gears, the cogwheel providing traction by engaging with a rack cast into the side of the rail.

Magic lantern image of Lahore Railway Station, Lahore circa 1895
Density of the railway network in Europe, 1896
"Gare Saint Lazare" in Paris, by Claude Monet (1877)In Scotland, the Kilmarnock and Troon Railway was the first railway constructed, in 1811, authorised by Act of Parliament in 1808.[16][17][18] The civil engineer leading the project was William Jessop, and it was the first railway in Scotland to use a steam locomotive, and the only line in Scotland for 14 years.[19] Its representation appeared in the Coat of Arms of the Burgh of Troon.[19] The line was intended to carry coal for the Duke of Portland; and ran services between Kilmarnock and Troon Harbour.[16][17][18] The line began life as a 9.5 mile (16 km), double-track 4 ft 0 in (1,219 mm) gauge horse-drawn waggonway. It was built using cast iron plate rails with an inner flange. A George Stephenson-built locomotive, his second one from Killingworth Colliery, was tried on the main line in 1817, but the weight of the locomotive broke the cast iron plate rails. It worked better when wooden rails were used, and it remained in use until 1848.

The Stockton and Darlington Railway opened in northern England in 1825[20] to be followed five years later by the Liverpool and Manchester Railway,[21] considered to be the world's first inter-city line. The gauge was that used for the early wagonways, and had been adopted for the Stockton and Darlington Railway. The 4 ft 8½ in (1,435 mm) width became known as the international "standard gauge", used by about 60% of the world's railways. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway proved the viability of rail transport when, after organising the Rainhill Trials of 1829, Stephenson's Rocket successfully hauled a load of 13 tons at an average speed of 12 miles per hour. The company worked its trains from its opening entirely with steam traction. Railways soon spread throughout the U.K. and the world, and became the dominant means of land transport for nearly a century until the invention of aircraft and automobiles, which prompted a gradual decline in railways.

The first railroad in the U.S. may have been a gravity railroad in Lewiston, New York in 1764. The 1810 Leiper Railroad in Pennsylvania was intended as the first permanent railroad,[22] and the 1826 Granite Railway in Massachusetts was the first commercial railroad to evolve through continuous operations into a common carrier. The Baltimore and Ohio, opened in 1830, was the first to evolve into a major system. In 1867, the first elevated railroad was built in New York. In 1869, the symbolically important transcontinental railroad was completed in the United States with the driving of a golden spike at Promontory, Utah.[23] The development of the railroad in the United States helped reduce transportation time and cost, which allowed migration towards the west. Railroads increased the accessibility of goods to consumers, thus allowing individuals and capital to flow westward. Railroads created national markets characterized by the 'law of one price' by lowering difference in price charged for commodity between suppliers and demanders. Railroads increased social savings, and were the largest contributors of any innovation before 1900.

The first South American railway opened in 1854, when a line was laid between the Chilean towns of Caldera and Copiapo. The first concerted trans-Andine attempt between Argentina and Chile did not occur until the 1870s, due to the financial risks involved in such a project. It was not until 1887 that the Argentinians began to construct their part of the enterprise, with the Chileans beginning construction in 1889, though by 1893 work had ceased due to financial constraints. In 1896, the Transandine Railway Company was created in London to purchase the existing railways and construct a continuous line between Argentina and Chile that would improve transport and communication links in South America. This was finally completed in 1908, when the Argentine and Chilean stretches of track were joined.

[edit] Dieselisation

Two SD70M diesel locomotives of the Union Pacific refuelling at Dunsmuir, CaliforniaMain article: Dieselisation
Dieselisation was the replacement of the steam locomotive with the diesel-electric locomotive (often referred to as a diesel locomotive), a process which began in the 1930s and is now substantially complete worldwide.

Dieselisation took place largely because of the reduction in operating costs it allowed. Steam locomotives require large pools of labour to clean, load, maintain and run. They also require extensive service, coaling and watering facilities. Diesel locomotives require significantly less time and labour to operate and maintain.

After World War II, dramatically increased labour costs in the Western World made steam an increasingly costly form of motive power. At the same time, the war had forced improvements in internal combustion engine technology that made diesel locomotives cheaper and more powerful. The post war world also re-aligned the business and financial markets, as did world geo-politics as in the Cold War (1947-1953).

[edit] Electrification
Main article: Railway electrification system

Electric streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his system on the hills in 1888
Japanese Shinkansen train passing Mount FujiRobert Davidson started to experiment with an electrical railway car in Scotland in 1838. By 1839 he had completed and presented a 4.8 m long carriage that weighed six tons, including batteries. It reached a maximum speed of 6.4 kilometres per hour.

William Atcheson Traill built a hydro-electric generating station at Walkmill Falls, Bushmills for the Giant's Causeway tramway installing water turbines to produce the electrical power for his line. Because of legal problems over water rights, erection of the Bushmills turbines was delayed and when the first section of the tramway, from Portrush to Bushmills, was opened on 29 January 1883 the timetabled passenger traffic was handled by steam tram engines which were in any case necessary on the town section in Portrush where it was impossible to provide electric power since this was originally fed to the trains via an elevated third rail which ran alongside the line. The ceremonial opening, using electric traction, took place on 28 September 1883 although a full scheduled electric service did not begin until 5 November of that year.

Magnus Volk opened his electric railway in Brighton in 1883.

The use of overhead wires to conduct electricity, invented by Granville T. Woods in 1888, among several other improvements, led to the development of electrified railways, the first of which in the U.S. was at Coney Island in 1892. Richmond, Virginia had the first successful electrically-powered trolley system in the U.S. Designed by electric power pioneer Frank J. Sprague, the trolley system opened its first line in January 1888. Richmond's hills, long a transportation obstacle, were considered an ideal proving ground. The new technology soon replaced horse-powered streetcars.

Sweden got the perhaps first fully electrified developed railway that efficiently transported commuters as well as goods, in 1895. At the time it ran from central Stockholm to the newly founded suburb of Djursholm. It is a narrow gauge railway (3 Swedish ft/891 mm) that is partly still in use, and is now part of Roslagsbanan.

[edit] Miscellaneous
In the USSR the phenomenon of children's railways was developed in the 1930s (the world's first opened on 24 July 1935). Fully operated by children, they were extracurricular educational institutions, where teenagers learned railway professions. A lot of them are functioning in post-Soviet states and Eastern European countries.

Many countries since the 1960s have adopted high-speed railways. On 3 April 2007, a French TGV with a modified engine and wheels set a new train speed record of 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph). The record took place on the new LGV Est line between Paris and Strasbourg using a specially equipped TGV Duplex train. The overhead lines had been modified for the attempt to carry 31 kV rather than the normal 25 kV.[24][25] On 24 August 2005 the Qingzang railway of China became the highest railway line in the world, when track was laid through the Tanggula Mountain Pass at 5072 m above sea level in the Tanggula Mountains in Tibet.[26]

[edit] Operations
Main article: Rail transport operations
A railway can be broken down into two major components: the items which "move", also referred to as the rolling stock, which include locomotives, passenger carrying vehicles (or coaches) and freight carrying vehicles (or goods wagons); and the "fixed" components, usually referred to as the infrastructure, including the permanent way and ancillary buildings for railway functions.

[edit] Rolling stock

Two British Rail Class 143 DMUs at Cardiff Queen Street stationMain articles: Locomotive and Railroad car
A locomotive is the vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. A locomotive has no payload capacity of its own, and its sole purpose is to move the train along the tracks. Usually, locomotives pull trains from the front, which gives better visibility to the driver, and allows faster speed.

A railroad car is a vehicle used for the haulage of either passengers or freight. Most cars carry a "revenue" load, although "non-revenue" cars exist for the railroad's own use, such as for maintenance-of-way purposes.

[edit] Signalling
Main article: Railway signalling

GWR semaphore-type signalRailway signalling is a system used to control railway traffic safely to prevent trains from colliding. Being guided by fixed rails, trains are uniquely susceptible to collision since they frequently operate at speeds that do not enable them to stop quickly or, in some cases, within the driver's sighting distance.

Most forms of train control involve movement authority being passed from those responsible for each section of a rail network (e.g., a signalman or stationmaster) to the train crew. The set of rules and the physical equipment used to accomplish this control determine what is known as the method of working (UK), method of operation (U.S.) or safeworking (Aus.). Not all methods require the use of signals, and some systems are specific to single track railways. The signalling process is traditionally carried out in a signal box (or interlocking tower (U.S.)), a small building that houses the lever frame required for the signalman to operate switches and signal equipment. These are placed at various intervals along the route of a railway, controlling specified sections of track. More recent technological developments have made such operational doctrine superfluous, with the centralization of signalling operations to regional control rooms. This has been facilitated by the increased use of computers, allowing vast sections of track to be monitored from a single location.

[edit] Right of way
Main article: Right-of-way
Railway tracks are laid upon land owned or leased by the railway. Owing to the requirements for large radius turns and modest grades, rails will often be laid in circuitous routes. Public carrier railways are typically granted limited rights of eminent domain (U.K.:compulsory purchase). In many cases in the 19th century, railways were given additional incentives in the form of grants of public land. Route length and grade requirements can be reduced by the use of alternating earthen cut and fill, bridges, and tunnels, all of which can greatly increase the capital expenditures required to develop a right of way, while significantly reducing operating costs and allowing higher speeds on longer radius curves. In densely urbanized areas such as Manhattan, railways are sometimes laid in tunnels to minimize the effects on existing properties (see condemnation).

[edit] Safety and railway disasters

Train wreck, 1907, in Canaan, New HampshireMain article: List of rail accidents
Trains can travel at very high speed, but they are heavy, are unable to deviate from the track and require a great distance to stop. Although rail transport is one of the safest forms of travel, there are many possibilities for accidents to take place. These can vary from the minor derailment (jumping the track), a head-on collision with another train and collision with an automobile or other vehicle at a level crossing/grade crossing. Level crossing collisions are relatively common in the United States where there are several thousand each year killing about 500 people (the comparable figures for the United Kingdom are 30 collisions and 12 casualties). For information regarding major accidents, see List of rail accidents.

Interlocking tower at railway crossings between rail linesThe most important safety measures are railway signalling and gates at level/grade crossings. Train whistles warn of the presence of a train, while trackside signals maintain the distances between trains. In the United Kingdom, vandalism or negligence is thought responsible for about half of rail accidents.[citation needed] Railway lines are zoned or divided into blocks guarded by combinations of block signals, operating rules, and automatic-control devices so that one train, at most, may be in a block at any time.

Historically, when a railway wished to construct a rail line that crossed an existing railway, an interlocking tower had to be constructed and manned, equipped with semaphore signals and derails controlled by rods and linkages. In this way a major accident could be avoided by signalling or derailling.[27]

Compared with road travel, railways are safe. Annual death rates on roads are over 40,000 in the U.S., about 3,000 in the U.K. and 900 in Australia, compared with 1,000 rail-related fatalities in the U.S., under 20 in the U.K. and 10 in Australia.[28][29] (These figures do not account for differences in passenger-miles traveled by mode; see e.g. Transportation safety in the United States.

[edit] Trackage

Concrete ties (sleepers)
Trestle bridge
Bolted rail connection and tie-down. Also known as a fishplate.Main article: Rail tracks
A typical track consists of two parallel steel (or in older networks, iron) rails, generally anchored perpendicular to members called crossties or sleepers of timber, concrete, or steel to maintain a consistent distance apart, or gauge. The rails and crossties (sleepers) are usually then placed on a foundation made of compressed earth on top of which is placed bed of ballast to distrubute the load from the crossties and to prevent the track from buckling (bending out of its original configuration) as the ground settles over time under the weight of the vehicles passing above. The vehicles traveling on the rails are arranged in a train; a series of individual powered or unpowered linked vehicles, displaying markers. These vehicles (referred to, in general, as cars, carriages or wagons) move with much less friction than do vehicles riding on rubber tires on a paved road, and the locomotive that pulls the train tends to use energy far more efficiently as a result.[citation needed]

Trackage, consisting of railroad ties (sleepers) and ties and rails, may be prefabricated or assembled in place. Rails may be segments welded or bolted, and may be of a length comparable to that of a railcar or two or may be many hundreds of feet long.

On curves the outer rail may be at a higher level than the inner rail. This is called superelevation or cant. This reduces the forces tending to displace the track and makes for a more comfortable ride for standing livestock and standing or seated passengers. This will be effective at a limited range of speeds, however.

[edit] Track components
Railways are highly complex feats of engineering, with many hours of planning and forethought required for a successful outcome. The first component of a railway is the route, which is planned to provide the least resistance in terms of gradient and engineering works. As such, the track bed is heavily engineered to provide, where possible, a level surface. As such, embankments are constructed to support the track and to provide a compromise in terms of the route's average elevation. With this in mind, sundry structures such as bridges and viaducts are constructed in an attempt to maintain the railway's elevation, and gradients are kept within manageable constraints. Where such structures are not always justified, such as in hilly terrain where routes may require long detours to avoid such features, a cutting or tunnel is dug or bored through the obstacle. Once the sundry engineering works are completed, a bed of stone (ballast) is laid over the compacted track bed to enhance drainage around the ties and evenly distribute pressure over a wider area, locking the track-work in place. Crushed stone is firmly tamped to prevent further settling and to lock the stones. Minor water courses are channeled through pipes (culverts) before the grade is raised

The base of the trackage consists of treated wood, concrete or steel ties (sleepers). These ensure the proper distance between the rails (known as the track's "gauge"). Traditional US practice with wood sleepers is to anchor the rail structure to the road bed through the use of baseplates. These are attached to the top of the ties to provide a secure housing for the flat bottomed rails. After placement of the rail atop the plate, spikes are driven through holes in the plate and into the tie where they are held by friction. The top of the spike has a head that clamps the rail. As an alternative, lag bolts can be used to retain the clamps, which is preferred since screws are less likely to loosen. Traditional practice in the UK was to screw cast iron 'chairs' to wooden sleepers. These chairs loosely hold bullhead rail which is then secured by a wood or steel 'key' wedged between the side of the rail and the chair. With concrete or steel sleepers fixings are built into the sleeper to which flat bottom rail is attached with sprung steel clips.

The space between and surrounding the ties is filled with additional ballast to stabilize the rail assembly.

[edit] Points (turnouts or switches)

Railway turnoutsMain article: Railroad switch
Points (U.K.) or switches (U.S.), technically known as turnouts, are the means of directing a train onto a diverging section of track, for example, a siding, a branch line, or a parallel running line. Laid similar to normal track, a point typically consists of a frog (common crossing), check rails and two switch rails. The switch rails may be moved left or right, under the control of the signalling system, to determine which path the train will follow.

[edit] Maintenance
Main articles: Track maintenance and Maintenance of way
Spikes in wooden ties can loosen over time, while split and rotten ties may be individually replaced with a new wooden tie or concrete substitute. Concrete ties can also develope cracks or splits, and can also be replaced individually. Should the rails settle due to soil subsidence, they can be lifted by specialized machinery and additional ballast tamped down to form a level bed. Periodically, ballast must be removed and replaced with clean ballast to ensure adequate drainage. Culverts and other passages for water must be kept clear lest water is impounded by the trackbed, causing landslips. Where trackbeds are placed along rivers, additional protection is usually placed to prevent erosion during times of high water, while bridges are another important item requiring inspection and maintenance. Besides general bridge maintenance, when a heavy train crosses a bridge at high speed, it can put a large surge of stress on the bridge in a short period of time, so bridges have to be inspected regularly for cracks and other stress damage.

[edit] Terminology

Rail tracksMain article: Rail terminology
Further information: Usage of the terms railroad and railway
In the U.K. and most other Commonwealth countries the term railway is used, not the U.S. term railroad. In Canada railway and railroad are interchangeable, although in law railway is the usual term. [30] Railroad was used in the U.K. concurrently with railway until the 1850s when railway became the established term. Several American companies have railway in their official names instead of railroad, including two of major modern railroads, BNSF Railway Company and Norfolk Southern Railway Company.

In the U.K. the term railway often refers to the whole organization of tracks, trains, stations, signalling, timetables and the operating companies that collectively make up a coordinated railway system, while permanent way or p/way refers to the tracks alone (this terminology is not common outside of the railway industry or those who take a keen interest in it).

Rapid transit systems (subways, metros, elevated lines, and undergrounds) and trolley lines are all specialized railways.

[edit] Rail transport by country
Main article: Rail transport by country
See also: Rail usage statistics by country and List of countries by rail transport network size
Of 236 countries and dependencies, 143 have rail transport (including several with very little), of which about 90 have passenger services.[citation needed]

[edit] See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Railroad
Look up railway in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Trains portal

Rail transport
Rolling stock
History by country
By country



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Long freight train crossing the Stoney Creek viaduct on the Canadian Pacific Railway in southern British ColumbiaList of rail transport topics
Economy of Earth (Transportation section)
High-speed rail
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List of heritage railways
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List of people associated with rail transport
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[edit] Footnotes
^ "New Rail Materials and Coatings" (PDF). railresearch.org. 2003. portal.railresearch.org.uk/RRUK/Share.... Retrieved on 2007-12-02.
^ "India's poll-eve railway budget spares passengers". www.indianembassy.org. www.indianembassy.org/i_digest/2004/j.... Retrieved on 2008-07-30.
^ Railroad Fuel Efficiency Sets New Record- American Association of Railroads
^ "Public Transportation Ridership Statistics". American Public Transportation Association. 2007. www.apta.com/research/stats/ridership/. Retrieved on 2007-09-10.
^ Dr M. J. T. Lewis, University of Hull, Railways in the Greek and Roman World
^ Hylton, Stuart (2007). The Grand Experiment: The Birth of the Railway Age 1820-1845. Ian Allan Publishing.
^ Georgius Agricola (trans Hoover), De re metallica (1913)
^ Porter, Peter (1914). Landmarks of the Niagara Frontier. The Author.
^ Vaughan, A., (1997) Railwaymen, Politics and Money, London: John Murray
^ a b Marshall, John. The Guiness Book of Rail Facts & Feats (1979) ISBN 0 900424 56 7
^ "Surrey Iron Railway 200th - 26th July 2003". Early Railways. Stephenson Locomotive Society. www.stephensonloco.fsbusiness.co.uk/s.... Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
^ Chartres, Professor J.: 'Richard Trevithick' in: Cannon, John (Ed.): Oxford Companion to British History, p. 932
^ "Early Days of Mumbles Railway". BBC. 2007-02-15. www.bbc.co.uk/wales/southwest/sites/s.... Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
^ "John Blenkinsop". Encyclopedia Brittanica. www.britannica.com/eb/article-9001800. Retrieved on 2007-09-10.
^ Hamilton Ellis (1968). The Pictorial Encyclopedia of Railways. The Hamlyn Publishing Group. pp. pp.20.
^ a b Lewin, Page 5
^ a b Awdry, Page 84
^ a b Robertson
^ a b Thomas
^ "September 27, 1825 - Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway". The Stockton and Darlington Railway. homepage.ntlworld.com/johnmoore/1825/.... Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
^ "Liverpool and Manchester". www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RAliver.... Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
^ Morlok, Edward K. (2005-01-11). "First permanent railroad in the U.S. and its connection to the University of Pennsylvania". www.seas.upenn.edu/~morlok/morlokpage.... Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
^ Ambrose, Stephen E. (2000). Nothing Like It In The World; The men who built the Transcontinental Railroad 1863-1869. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-84609-8.
^ Associated Press (2007-04-04). "French train breaks speed record". CNN. www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/europe/04/03/T.... Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
^ Fouquet, Helene and Viscousi, Gregory (2007-04-03). "French TGV Sets Record, Reaching 357 Miles an Hour (Update2)". Bloomberg. www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601.... Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
^ "New height of world's railway born in Tibet". Xinhua. 2005-08-24. news.xinhuanet.com/english/2005-08/24.... Retrieved on 2007-09-11.
^ "Welcome to Saskrailmuseum.org". GRAND TRUNK PACIFIC RAILWAY BUILDINGS. September 11, 2008. www.saskrailmuseum.org/. Retrieved on 2008-10-03.
^ Office of Hazardous Materials Safety. "A Comparison of Risk: Accidental Deaths - United States - 1999-2003". U.S. Department of Transportation. hazmat.dot.gov/riskmgmt/riskcompare.htm. Retrieved on 2007-09-10.
^ "Office of Rail Regulation". U.K. Health & Safety Executive. www.rail-reg.gov.uk/. Retrieved on 2007-09-10.
^ "see, for instance, the federal Railway Safety Act(1985)". www.tc.gc.ca/acts-regulations/acts/19.... Retrieved on 2009-03-14.

[edit] References
Cannon, John (Ed.): Oxford Companion to British History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002) ISBN 0198608721

[edit] Further reading

End of the single-track unelectrified line at Bad Radkersburg, Styria, Austria, near the Slovenian border.John H. Armstrong. Railroad: What It Is, What It Does 5th Edition (2008)
Rainer Fremdling, "Railways and German Economic Growth: A Leading Sector Analysis with a Comparison to the United States and Great Britain," The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 37, No. 3. (September 1977), pp. 583-604.
Leland H. Jenks, "Railroads as an Economic Force in American Development," The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 4, No. 1 (May 1944), 1-20.
Lewis, M. J. T., "Railways in the Greek and Roman world", in Guy, A. / Rees, J. (eds), Early Railways. A Selection of Papers from the First International Early Railways Conference (2001), pp. 8–19 (10-15)
John Marshall, The Guinness Railway Book (Enfield, 1989)
O. S. Nock, ed. Encyclopedia of Railways (London, 1977), worldwide coverage, heavily illustrated
Frederick Smeeton Williams, Our Iron Roads: Their History, Construction and Social Influences (1852) (available through google books).
Patrick O’Brien. Railways and the Economic Development of Western Europe, 1830-1914 (1983)
Jack Simmons and Gordon Biddle (editors), The Oxford Companion to British Railway History: From 1603 to the 1990s (2nd edition 1999)
Skelton, Oscar D. (1916). The Railway Builders. Glasgow, Brook, & Company, Toronto.
John Stover, American Railroads (2nd ed 1997)
James W. Ely Jr "Railroads & American Law" (2001) University Press of Kansas
Retrieved from "en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rail_transport"

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The Panama canal. A cargo ship transiting the Gatún locks northbound is guided carefully between lock chambers by "mules" on the lock walls to either side.
This article is about a basic concept of transport. For other uses, see Shipping (disambiguation).

Shipping is physical process of transporting goods and cargo. Virtually every product ever made, bought, or sold has been affected by shipping. Despite the many variables in shipped products and locations, there are only three basic types of shipments: land, air, and sea.

Land or "ground" shipping can be either by train or by truck. Trucking is easily the most popular form of shipping. Even in Air and Sea shipments, ground transportation is still required to take the product from its origin to the airport or seaport and then to its destination. Ground transportation is typically more affordable than air shipments, but more expensive than shipping by sea. Trucks are also much faster than ships and rail but slower than planes.

Many trucks will take freight directly from the shipper to its destination in what is known as a door to door shipment. Vans and trucks of all sizes make deliveries to sea ports and air ports where freight is moved in bulk also.

Much shipping is done aboard actual ships. An individual nation's fleet and the people that crew it are referred to its merchant navy or merchant marine. Merchant shipping is essential to the world economy, carrying the bulk of international trade. The ships are also extremely expensive constructions themselves, being some of the largest man-made vehicles ever. The term originates with the shipping trade of wind power ships, and has come to refer to the delivery of cargo and parcels of any size above the common mail of letters and postcards.

Ground shipping can be cheaper and less restrictive to size, quantity, weight, and type of freight than by air transport. Air transport is usually reserved for products which must be sent within a shorter time frame. Some carriers offer ground shipping that operates on an exact timeline as air does. This is a recent development becoming mainstream among major carriers since the late 1990s. UPS and FedEx both offer guaranteed day ground shipping.

[edit] Terms of shipment
Harbor cranes unload cargo from a container ship at the Jawaharlal Nehru Port, Navi Mumbai, India
Main article: Incoterm

The most common trading terms used in shipping goods internationally are:

* Freight on board, or free on board (FOB): freight on board means that the exporter delivers the goods at the specified location (and on board the vessel). This means any cost to load and lash, including securing cargo not to move in the ships hold, place something under the cargo so it is protected from contact with the double bottom to prevent slipping, and protection against damage from condensation, are to be paid by the exporter. An example is, FOB Kunming Airport (the exporter delivers the goods at Kunming airport) and pays for the cargo to be loaded and secured on the plane. This means an exporter is bound to deliver the goods at the Kunming Airport at his cost and expenses. In this case, the freight and other expenses for outbound traffic is borne by the importer.

* Cost and freight (C&F, CFR, CNF): (With insurance payable by the importer). The exporter pays the ocean shipping/air freight costs to the specified location. Example, C&F Los Angeles (the exporter pays the ocean shipping/air freight costs to Los Angeles). Many of the shipping carriers (such as UPS, DHL, FEDEX) offer guarantees on their delivery times. These are known as GSR guarantees or "guaranteed service refunds". This means that if the parcels are not delivered on time, the customer is entitled to a refund on the shipping cost.

* Cost, insurance, and freight (CIF): Insurance and freight are all paid by the exporter to the specified location. Example, CIF Los Angeles (the exporter pays the ocean shipping/air freight costs to Los Angeles including the insurance).

[edit] See also

A Bakery on the Move: Ottawa’s B. Goods Bakery does it all on four wheels.

Ottawa's B. Goods Bakery does it all on four wheels
Written by Sarah-Lee Richardson

This past winter, B. Goods set up shop on the Rideau Canal for Winterlude.
Photos by Sarah-Lee Richardson

Walking down busy Rideau Street in Ottawa, past the Shawarma King, the Spring Roll King and Shonn’s Makeovers and Spa, the smell of freshly baked cookies warms the crisp, cool air. The smell is coming from a former Snap-On Tools truck, which, upon closer investigation, is no longer housing wrenches and ratchets, but cooling racks, mixers and bins of flour and sugar. It’s a bakery on wheels.

Brad Campeau got his cookie business, B. Goods, off the ground and onto four wheels just last year. He saw a Snap-On Tools truck and immediately knew he could tear out the red shag carpet and the ceiling full of loops for carrying tools, and replace it with a propane convection oven, fridge, double sink, and baking work area. It was just the truck he’d been waiting for.

“Sometimes it’s cramped,� says Campeau, “but if it’s just me, I’ve got plenty of room.�

Everything in the truck is mobile and fully adjustable. Because everything also has to be secure for when the truck is in motion, there are ties to hold down the cooling racks and locking drawers that won’t fly open.

“I wanted to own my own bakery for as long as I could remember,� Campeau says. “I was delivering for another bakery with a sprinter van. I had a moment of realization that I could walk from the driver’s seat to the back. What would stop me from putting a bakery back here?�

A sprinter van would prove to be too small, but by May 2007 Campeau had bought the Snap-On Tools truck. Two months and $30,000 later he was baking and selling his cookies wholesale. By August he was selling retail out of the back of the truck on a downtown street corner in Ottawa. He fitted the truck with an awning over the back door and set out display cases filled with warm, freshly baked cookies.

Cookies are B. Goods’ specialty, with nine flavours, two of which are gluten-free. Chickpea and rice flours are the bases for the gluten-free varieties – which are very chewy; Campeau pays special attention to making sure the cookies are moist enough so they don’t dry out quickly.

Besides selling retail at festivals and outdoor concerts, B. Goods wholesales its cookies to a number of retailers around Ottawa. The cookies are sold stacked back-to-back in loaf tins with brown bags for customers to fill with their selection.
“People allergic to gluten aren’t allergic to fat and sugar,� says Campeau with a grin.

He describes all his cookies as “café-style with a healthy undertone.â€� Campeau uses only organic flours, sugar, and spices when he can find them. He says the organic flour that he uses from Mountain Path has a nicer flavour, is of a higher quality and the price difference isn’t that much compared to non-organic flour.

Campeau made a personal decision early on in life not to eat any dairy or eggs, and as a vegan, his philosophy extends to his business. All of B. Goods’ products are dairy- and egg-free. Campeau use molasses, honey, or a non-butter spread to ensure moistness.

The top two bestsellers are B. Goods’ spelt molasses ginger and chili chocolate cookies . When I ask Campeau which cookie is his favourite, he laughs.

“That’s like asking a father which is his favourite child,� he says.

After thinking about it, he decides his “favourite child� is spelt oatmeal raisin. But then he sighs and says, “the spelt oatmeal chocolate chip is good too.� I guess like all fathers, Campeau has two favourite children.

Campeau pulls a batch of chili chocolate cookies out of the oven for me to sample. The cookie is warm, chewy and full of chocolatey flavour, with a hint of spicy chili that comes through at the end of the bite. Campeau got the idea for this cookie from a chocolate chili truffle that a former employer used to make. Because the truffle was full of dairy, Campeau was frustrated that he could never try it, so he decided to turn it into a cookie.

He took the base for a double chocolate chip cookie, took out the chocolate chips, and replaced them with freshly ground pepper, organic paprika and, of course, chili.

Brad Campeau was inspired to create a bakery on wheels while delivering baked goods for another bakery; by the summer of 2007 B. Goods was in business.
From spring through fall, Campeau sells his cookies out of his truck in downtown Ottawa, but his cookies can be found throughout the year at health food stores across the city. The cookies are easy to spot, because they’re sold with as little packaging as possible, in loaf tins covered with clear plastic bags, and paper bags for customers to fill. This approach keeps the cookies protected, cuts down on packaging for the consumer, and also allows Campeau to deliver them directly in the tins, which means no need for cardboard boxes or any extra packaging.

To make deliveries around town, Campeau relies on a “Virtu-car,� a car-sharing service that not only saves on costs, but also lowers his impact on the environment.

The response to the cookies has been good, especially when Campeau hands out samples. When people get a taste of how chewy and moist a spelt, non-dairy, non-GMO cookie can taste, his sales go from 24 to 200 cookies a day. Each cookie at the health food stores sells anywhere from $1.19 to $1.32 plus tax.

Campeau has expansion on his mind and recently purchased a second truck, an old Fire Events truck from Kingston. It still has the Rescue 4 plaque emblazoned on the steering column. His future plans include using both trucks in downtown Ottawa – the original B. Goods truck will be fired up as the bakery and the second truck will be retro-fitted into a walk-in retail area for customers. This spring, Campeau hopes to capitalize on his success of selling cookies at Ottawa’s Winterlude Festival on the frozen canal, by attending more outdoor Ottawa festivals and offering concert goers a sweet alternative to poutine. And he’s not only adding a second truck, he’s hoping to add more than just cookies.

“Maybe a line of tarts with nice fillings that aren’t all gelatin and sugar, all the fillings would be good stuff.�

The name “B. Goods� means many things to many people – baked goods, Brad’s goods, or “be good� to yourself by eating foods with organic flours and no dairy. Whatever B. Goods means to its customers, one thing is clear; customers see the cookies as a tastier, healthier choice for a delicious snack.

“We don’t want to be known as the healthy cookie, so much as a good cookie for healthy people.�

OCRI, is Ottawa’s leading economic development agency for fostering the advancement of the region's globally competitive knowledge-based institutions and industries. OCRI delivers its economic development services through a unique partnership with the City of Ottawa, where the City and OCRI, through its members set the strategy and manage the programs that move Ottawa’s economy forward.

OCRI is a non-profit, partnership organization that operates on an annual budget that comes from a variety of sources including: municipal, federal and provincial government; membership fees; professional development programs; and private sector contributions.
Greek shipping
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Coat of arms of Greece
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Greece portal

Shipping is arguably the oldest form of occupation of the Greeks. Greece has the largest merchant marine in the world at 170 mil. dwt, of which 50 mil.t. dwt under the Greek flag.[1] It is the second largest contributor to the Greek economy after tourism and forms the backbone of world shipping. As of 2007, Greek run companies controlled almost 18% of the world's fleet. Its key centers of operation are Pireaus, London and New York. Its fleet flies under a variety of flags, including flags of convenience. However, some Greek shipping is gradually returning to Greece following the changes to the legislative framework governing its operations and the improved infrastructure.

* 1 History

* 2 Development in Asia

* 3 Families

* 4 Greek Shipping Companies

* 5 References

* 6 External links

* 7 See also

[edit] History
Greek Merchant Navy flag used between 1822-28

In the eighteenth century a substantial merchant marine, based on the three “nauticalâââââââ€

1.5 star rating
Pat March 10, 2009, (Edited April 29, 2009)


After what happened here are some shipping tips for everyone before proceeding.Thanks
Some shipping tips :
So, you have to ship hydraulic seeding equipment from the plant in Brandon, Manitoba to the buyer in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Can't be too complex? Or can it? Have you done this before? How should you package the seeders for an ocean crossing? Do you know the handling capabilities at all the ports of entry and exit? Who is paying for customs duties in India? Or the inland transit from the port in Madras? These are just a few of the questions that need answering before you sign any shipping contract.
The onus is on the shipper, that's you, to ensure your goods are properly packaged and identified for transportation. Let's look at a few simple rules when preparing your goods for shipment. Do the following when researching and preparing your shipment:

* Assess the hazards of all transportation legs and pack for the toughest leg

* Determine how many times your goods will be handled in transit and prepare your goods for multiple handling

* Meet the packing requirements that apply in the country of origin, for each carrier, at all ports of exit and entry, and in the country of destination

* Know the packing capabilities of your product, such as its "stackability" or susceptibility to weather damage, and plan accordingly

* Use the appropriate unitizing devices-pallets, containers-and ensure each terminal has the capability to handle your chosen devices

* Plan for proper loading and securing of your goods (i.e. blocking and bracing in containers)

* Ensure your goods are clearly marked, labeled and identified on a per item basis, if your goods are to be consolidated with other shipments

If you are a smaller company with little or no experience in shipping internationally, the task of identifying all the risks, hazards, and pitfalls of intercontinental shipping can be overwhelming. Luckily, help is close at hand. The Canadian International Freight Forwarder's Association (www.ciffa.com) is a good place to start when looking for assistance. Before you hire a freight forwarder to help you navigate the myriad laws and regulations, get recommendations from local exporters or trade specialists. If you decide to use a freight forwarder, prepare a Shipper's Letter of Instructions to outline any special handling requirements or paperwork pertinent to your shipment. Another option is to hire a transport company that offers integrated, value-added services, such as freight forwarding.

Whichever way you choose to go-independently, with a freight forwarder, or a full-service transporter-pay close attention to the negotiated terms of the shipping contract. Specific terms outlined in the contract, known as Incoterms, layout the logistical responsibilities of the buyer and seller. Know what you are responsible for and how much it will cost.

So, you have done your homework, hired a good freight forwarder, packaged your goods properly for marine transport, and labeled them clearly. Your seeding equipment will make it to Hyderabad-barring any Acts of God and Enemies of the Queen. But that's an insurance issue and a topic for another article.

Some more tips
1. Choose the Right Box
Use a box that is strong enough to protect the contents and large enough to leave space for adequate cushioning. Express Mail and Priority Mail boxes, envelopes, and tubes are available for free from your post office. You can also buy various sizes of boxes, as well as padded mailers, mailing tubes, and other packing materials at your local post office.

If you choose a previously-used box, make sure you remove or cross out any old shipping labels, and make sure the box is in good shape, with no weak spots or cracks. Old or new, make sure the box is made of heavy, corrugated cardboard. Thinner boxes, such as most shoe boxes or gift boxes are not strong enough for shipping.

2. Protect and Pack
Don't skimp on cushioning material. You can use shredded or crumpled newspaper, bubble wrap, or Styrofoamâ„¢ peanuts, or even plain air-popped popcorn. Pack items tightly to avoid shifting, and make sure the cushioning material covers all sides of the object.

If you're shipping several items together, wrap each one separately and provide enough cushioning to prevent movement.

Fragile items need extra protection:

* Hollow items - stuff with packing material to avoid damage due to shock. Cover handles or other protruding parts with extra padding and/or cardboard.

* Extremely fragile glass or ceramics - try double-boxing: pack the item as described, then place that box in a slightly larger box, with more cushioning material in between the boxes.

* Framed photographs or artwork - take the glass out of the frame and wrap it separately.

* Computer equipment, circuit boards and memory - pad well and pack in an Electro Static Discharge (ESD) bag to prevent damaging static buildup.

* Electronic items - remove batteries and wrap them separately.

For extra identification, place a return address label inside the package.

After packing, gently shake the box. If nothing moves, it's ready to be sealed.

3. Seal Carefully
A strong seal is essential, so always use tape that is designed for shipping, such as pressure-sensitive tape, nylon-reinforced kraft paper tape, or glass-reinforced pressure-sensitive tape. These items can be purchased at your local Post Office. We recommend you do not use wrapping paper, string, masking tape, or cellophane tape.

Make sure you seal the center seams at both the top and the bottom of the box securely. Cover all other seams with tape, and be sure not to leave any open areas which could snag on machinery.

If you plan to insure the package, leave an untaped area on the cardboard where your postal clerk can stamp "insured."

4. Address Correctly
To avoid confusion, put the delivery and return addresses only on one side of the package. Make sure you include the ZIP code and complete street address, including apartment or unit number, if applicable. Also include all these items in your own return address.

For overseas shipping, include the correct postal codes, city or town, province or state name, and country name.

Do not put the shipping label over a seam or closure, or on top of sealing tape. To avoid ink smudges, you can place a strip of clear packing tape over the address areas.

Take packages that weigh at least 1 pound into the post office for mailing.

For more shipping tips and information, pick up free Publications #2, Packaging for Mailing, and #227, Preparing Packages for Mailing at your post office.

some more tips

Tips for successful shipping

Offer free or discounted shipping
Make sure your shipping rates are reasonable
Save time and hassle
Stock up on supplies
Print shipping labels at home
Generate repeat business

These shipping tips are designed to help you ship like a pro.

Offer free or discounted shipping.
Listings with free or multiple-item discounts encourage buyers to purchase additional items from you. Select the “Free shipping� check box when you list your item for sale. When buyers search for items, they can sort results by price plus shipping. Items with free shipping or low shipping costs will rank higher.

Make sure your shipping rates are reasonable.
If you’re not sure, check our Excessive Shipping Policy. You can check the actual cost of shipping your item directly from Canada Post or UPS.

Save time and hassle.
Save time with free package pickup services from UPS. There’s no need to leave your home or office. Also, consider insuring your item. You’ll feel more secure if you purchase insurance from the carrier.

Stock up on supplies.
Always have shipping supplies on hand by finding shipping supplies from sellers on eBay.

Print shipping labels from home.
You can print shipping labels and custom forms right from your home printer. Look for the "Print Shipping Label" link on the item page, or find out more.

Generate repeat business.
Include a business card or note with your eBay user ID to thank your buyer for their business.
Here are some interesting articles:

By The Associated Press


WASHINGTON - President Barack Obama has apologized to the chairman of the Special Olympics for his quip equating his bowling skills to those of athletes with disabilities.

Appearing on "The Tonight Show," the president told host Jay Leno he'd been practising at the White House's bowling alley but wasn't happy with his score of 129.

Then he said: "It was like the Special Olympics or something."

The audience laughed, but the White House quickly recognized the blunder. The Special Olympics, founded in 1968 by Eunice Kennedy Shriver, is a global nonprofit organization serving 200 million individuals with intellectual disabilities.

On his way back to Washington on Air Force One, Obama called the chairman of the Special Olympics, Tim Shriver, to say he was sorry - even before the taped program aired late Thursday night.

"He expressed his disappointment and he apologized in a way that was very moving,"Shriver said Friday on ABC's "Good Morning America. "He expressed that he did not intend to humiliate this population."

Obama, Shriver said, wants to have some Special Olympic athletes visit the White House to bowl or play basketball.

Still, Shriver said, "I think it's important to see that words hurt and words do matter. And these words that in some respect can be seem as humiliating or a put down to people with special needs do cause pain and they do result in stereotypes

By The Canadian Press


KELOWNA, B.C. - Riley Rose Hawthorne couldn't wait - so her father had to help deliver the baby girl on the sidewalk right in front of the local hospital.

Joanne Hawthorne's second baby wasn't due for another nine days when she began having contractions on Tuesday.

So she and her husband Sean were in no rush when they started walking to the Kelowna, B.C., hospital.

But during one contraction the baby's shoulder emerged and suddenly dad was forced into helping with an emergency delivery right on the street.

Both mother and daughter are doing well.

The little girl's second name is in honour of Rose Avenue - the place of her birth.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Transshipment or Transhipment is the shipment of goods to an intermediate destination, and then from there to yet another destination.

One possible reason is to change the means of transport during the journey (for example from ship transport to road transport), known as transloading. Another reason is to combine small shipments into a large shipment, dividing the large shipment at the other end. Transshipment usually takes place in transportation hubs. Much international transshipment also takes place in designated customs areas, thus avoiding the need for customs checks or duties, otherwise a major hindrance for efficient transport.

Note that transshipment is generally considered as a legal term. An item handled (from the shipper's point of view) as a single movement is not generally considered transshipped, even though it may in reality change from one transport to another at several points. Previously it was often not distinguished from transloading since each leg of such a trip was typically handled by a different shipper.

Transshipment is normally fully legitimate and an everyday part of the world's trade. However, it can also be a method used to disguise intent, as is the case with illegal logging, smuggling or grey market goods.


Free port
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A free port (porto franco) or free zone (US: Foreign-Trade Zone) is a port or area with relaxed jurisdiction with respect to the country of location. Free economic zones may also be called free ports.

Most commonly a free port is a special customs area with favorable customs regulations (or no customs duties and controls for transshipment). Earlier in history some free ports like Hong Kong enjoyed political autonomy. Many international airports have free ports, though they tend to be called customs areas, customs zones, or international zones.

Contents [hide]
1 Free ports and Free Zones by country
1.1 Africa
1.1.1 Egypt
1.1.2 Morocco
1.1.3 Mauritius
1.2 Asia
1.2.1 Bahrain
1.2.2 Hong Kong, China
1.2.3 India
1.2.4 Indonesia
1.2.5 Iran
1.2.6 Israel
1.2.7 Japan
1.2.8 Lebanon
1.2.9 Macao, China
1.2.10 Malaysia
1.2.11 Pakistan
1.2.12 Philippines
1.2.13 Singapore
1.2.14 South Korea
1.2.15 Taiwan
1.2.16 Turkey
1.2.17 United Arab Emirates
1.3 Europe
1.3.1 Austria
1.3.2 Belarus
1.3.3 Croatia
1.3.4 Denmark
1.3.5 Finland
1.3.6 France
1.3.7 Germany
1.3.8 Georgia
1.3.9 Greece
1.3.10 Ireland
1.3.11 Isle of Man
1.3.12 Italy
1.3.13 Malta
1.3.14 Latvia
1.3.15 Lithuania
1.3.16 Portugal
1.3.17 Romania
1.3.18 Russia
1.3.19 Spain
1.3.20 Sweden
1.3.21 Turkey
1.3.22 Ukraine
1.3.23 United Kingdom
1.4 The Americas
1.4.1 Argentina
1.4.2 Bermuda
1.4.3 Brazil
1.4.4 Chile
1.4.5 Dominican Republic
1.4.6 Nicaragua
1.4.7 Panama
1.4.8 Uruguay
1.4.9 U.S.
1.4.10 Venezuela
2 See also
3 External links

[edit] Free ports and Free Zones by country

[edit] Africa

[edit] Egypt
Port Said
Suez Canal Container Terminal

[edit] Morocco
Tangier Exportation Free Zone

[edit] Mauritius
Port Louis Free Port

[edit] Asia

[edit] Bahrain

[edit] Hong Kong, China
Hong Kong

[edit] India

[edit] Indonesia
Batam Island

[edit] Iran

[edit] Israel

[edit] Japan

[edit] Lebanon
Port Beirut

[edit] Macao, China
Macao (Ka-Ho)

[edit] Malaysia
Penang Until 1969

[edit] Pakistan

[edit] Philippines
The former United States Navy base of Subic Bay
Zamboanga Economic Zone and Freeport
Clark Air Base and Freeport

[edit] Singapore

[edit] South Korea
Gwangyang Bay

[edit] Taiwan
Port of Keelung Free Trade Zone
Port of Taipei Free Trade Zone
Port of Taichung Free Trade Zone
Port of Kaohsiung Free Trade Zone
Taoyuan Air Cargo Park Free Trade Zone
Taiwan FTZs

[edit] Turkey

[edit] United Arab Emirates
Fujairah Creative City
Dubai Internet City
Dubai Media City
Dubai Studio City
International Media and Production Zone
Dubai Knowledge Village
Dubai Healthcare City
Dubai International Financial Center
Dubai Outsource Zone
Jebel Ali Free Zone
RAK Media City
Ras Al Khaimah Free Trade Zone

[edit] Europe

[edit] Austria
(part of the European Union)

Linz (port on river Danube)
Vienna (port on river Danube)

[edit] Belarus
Brest FEZ
Grodno FEZ

[edit] Croatia
Rijeka, 1723

[edit] Denmark
(part of the European Union)

Freeport of Copenhagen (Københavns Frihavn)

[edit] Finland
(part of the European Union)

Free zone of Lappeenranta (Lappeenrannan Vapaa-alue)
Freeport of Hanko (Hangon Vapaasatama)

[edit] France
(part of the European Union)

Free Zone of Verdon - Port de Bordeaux (Zone franche du Verdon â€â€� Port de Bordeaux)

[edit] Germany
(part of the European Union)

Freeport of Hamburg (Freihafen Hamburg)
Freeport of Bremen (Freihafen Bremen)
Freeport of Bremerhaven (Freihafen Bremerhaven)
Freeport of Emden (Freihafen Emden)
Freeport of Kiel (Freihafen Kiel)
Freeport of Cuxhaven (Freihafen Cuxhaven)
Freeport of Deggendorf (Freihafen Deggendorf)
Freeport of Duisburg (Freihafen Duisburg)

[edit] Georgia
Ajaria autonomous republic
Batumi, 1878-1886 (then Russia)

[edit] Greece
(part of the European Union)

Free zone of Piraeus
Free zone of Thessaloniki
Free zone of Heraclion

[edit] Ireland
(part of the European Union)

Ringaskiddy Free Port
Shannon Free Zone

[edit] Isle of Man
Ronaldsway Airport (Ballasala)

[edit] Italy
(part of the European Union)

Livorno, 1675-1860
Free Zone of Trieste (Porto franco di Trieste)
Free Zone of Venice (Porto franco di Venezia)

[edit] Malta
(part of the European Union)

Malta Freeport [1]

[edit] Latvia
(part of the European Union)

Free port of Riga
Free port of Ventspils

[edit] Lithuania
(part of the European Union)

Free Port of KlaipÄâ€â€�da

[edit] Portugal
(part of the European Union)

Free Zone of Madeira - Caniçal (Zona franca da Madeira - Caniçal)

[edit] Romania
Constanta Port, January 2007

[edit] Russia
Vladivostok, 1861-1909

[edit] Spain
(part of the European Union)

Free zone of Barcelona (Zona franca de Barcelona)
Free zone of Cádiz (Zona franca de Cádiz)
Free zone of Vigo (Zona franca de Vigo)
Free zone of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Zona franca de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria)
(Ceuta and Melilla are not Free Ports or Free zones because they are parts of Spain, but not part of the European union for customs and excises)

[edit] Sweden
(part of the European Union)

Marstrand, 17th century
Saint-Barthélemy, 1785-1878

[edit] Turkey

[edit] Ukraine
free port and free economic zone Odessa
Trade sea port of Odessa, January 1, 2000 for 25 years

[edit] United Kingdom
(part of the European Union)

Liverpool Free Zone
Prestwick Airport Free Zone
Southampton Free Zone
Tilbury Free Zone
Port of Sheerness Free Zone
Humberside Free Zone
London Docklands

[edit] The Americas

[edit] Argentina
Zona Franca La Plata

[edit] Bermuda
Free port of Hamilton Harbour, Hamilton, Bermuda

[edit] Brazil
Zona Franca de Manaus

[edit] Chile

[edit] Dominican Republic
Mega Port of Punta Caucedo
strategis.ic.gc.ca/epic/internet/inim... www.port-technology.com/projects/cauc...

[edit] Nicaragua
Managua Zona Franca (Free Port)

[edit] Panama

[edit] Uruguay
Carrasco International Airport (Free Port)
Zona Franca de Montevideo
Zona Franca Colonia

[edit] U.S.
US Commerce Department (International Trade Administration): List of U.S. Foreign-Trade Zones

[edit] Venezuela
Free port of Isla Margarita (Puerto Libre de Margarita)
Free zone of the Paraguaná Peninsula (Zona Franca de la Península de Paraguaná)

[edit] See also
Duty free

[edit] External links
a list of free ports in the European union (.pdf-file; English)
The German customs administration about freeports and free zones in Germany (German)
US Customs: About Foreign-Trade Zones & Contact Info
US Commerce Department (International Trade Administration): U.S. Foreign-Trade Zones Board
Retrieved from "en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_port"
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